Additive manufacturing technology (AMT) allow the reproducible production of complex 3D constructs in accordance to computer-aided design (CAD) models. However, conventional AMTs such as stereolithography and extrusion based bioprinting require a layer-by-layer deposition of the resin, which is often results in low resolution. Two photon-polymerization (2PP) is a state-of the-art 3D printing technique, where nonlinear absorption of a femtosecond-pulsed infrared laser leads to the cross linking of a small voxel within the volume of the photosensitive material or photoresist. High resolution 3D structures with feature sizes down to 100 nm can be produced directly within the bulk of the sample. A great variety of photosensitive materials can be employed as bioink for 2PP, both natural and synthetic polymers. Direct encapsulation of (co-cultures) of cells could also be obtained via 2PP. This approach provides high initial cell loading and homogeneous distribution of cells within the printed hydrogel. By reconstructing the environmental parameters and architectures of natural cell microenvironment, 2PP platform can provide a useful tool to create biomimetic tissue models and study cell response in 3D.
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